英語版Wikipediaホイッスルページ翻訳

ホイッスルに関するWikipediaのページは、日本語版より英語版の方が数十倍の文章量があります。
このページは、英語版を日本語訳しようと試みるページです。【随時更新】

Whistle Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whistle

An aerodynamic whistle (or call) is a simple aerophone, an instrument which produces sound from a stream of gas, most commonly air. It may be mouth-operated, or powered by air pressure, steam, or other means. Whistles vary in size from a small slide whistle or nose flute type to a large multi-piped church organ.

空気力学的には、ホイッスル(もしくは呼笛)はシンプルな気鳴楽器で、音をガス(一般的には空気)から作り出す器具です。口を使ったり、空気の圧力、流れなどの力によって行います。サイズも小さなスライドホイッスルやフルートタイプから複数パイプを持つ大きな教会のオルガンまでと、多様です。

Whistles have been around since early humans first carved out a gourd or branch and found they could make sound with it. In prehistoric Egypt, small shells were used as whistles.[1] Many present day wind instruments are inheritors of these early whistles. With the rise of more mechanical power, other forms of whistles have been developed.

初期の人類がひょうたんや枝を使って音を立てられるとわかったときから、ホイッスルはありました。また、有史以前のエジプトでは小さな貝殻がホイッスルとして使われました。こんにちの管楽器の多くは、この初期のホイッスルの後継です。機械技術の工場によって、他の形のホイッスルも開発されました。

One characteristic of a whistle is that it creates a pure, or nearly pure, tone. There are many ways to create pure tones, but we restrict the descriptions here to what are called aerodynamic whistles. Strictly speaking, they are fluid mechanical whistles since they occur in gases, such as air or steam, as well as in liquids, such as water. The only difference between them is the fluid density and the sound speed.

ホイッスルの特徴のひとつは、それが混じりけの無い(もしくはほぼ無い)階調の音を作るということです。混じりけの無い音を作る方法はいくつもありますが、ここでは空気力学的なホイッスルと呼ばれているもののみを説明します。厳密にいえば、水のような液体や空気または蒸気のようなガスを利用するなら、流体機械式笛です。
それらの唯一の違いは流体密度と音の伝わる速さです。

The word aerodynamic whistle is used here since it is in common use. The conversion of flow energy to sound comes from an interaction between a solid material and a fluid stream. The forces in some whistles are sufficient to set the solid material in motion. Classic examples are Aeolian tones that result in galloping power lines,[2] or the Tacoma Narrows Bridge (galloping Gertie).[3] Other examples are circular disks set into vibration.[4]

”空力学的なホイッスル”という単語はそれが一般化した頃から使われています。エネルギーの流れから音への変換は、固体と液体の流れの相互作用から起こります。固体を動かすのに十分な力をもつホイッスルもあります。古典的な事例では、疾走する送電線の結果としての”エオリアトーン”で、他の例は円形のディスクを振動です。

The whistles described in this article are in a subclass where only the fluid is in motion and there is no significant dependent motion of the interacting solid. Depending on the geometry there are two basic types of whistles, those that generate sound though oscillations of fluid mass flow and those that generate sound through oscillations of the force applied to the surrounding medium.

この記事内の「ホイッスル」は、流体のみが動作している下位分類にあり、相互作用する固体の動作に従っていません。
幾何学によるとホイッスルには2つの基本型があり、ひとつは流体の振動によって音を生み出すもの、もうひとつは周りの媒体に加わった力の振動を通して音を生み出すものです。

Early police whistles
Joseph Hudson set up J Hudson & Co in Birmingham, UK in 1870. With his younger brother James, he designed the ‘Acme City’ brass whistle. This became the first referee whistle used at association football matches during the 1878–79 Football Association Cup match between Nottingham Forest and Sheffield. Prior to the introduction of the whistle, handkerchiefs were used by the umpires to signal to the players.

初期の警邏用ホイッスル
ジョセフ・ハドソンは1870年にイギリスのバーミンガム(当時)で、J Hudson&Co社を設立しました。そこで彼は弟のジェイムズと真鍮製ホイッスル「Acme City」を設計します。
そしてこれは、ノッティンガム・フォレストとシェフィールドの間で1878~79年に行われたサッカー協会の試合、「フットボールアソシエーションカップ」で使われた最初のサッカーレフェリー用のホイッスルになりました。

In 1883 he began experimenting with pea-whistle designs that could produce an intense sound that could grab attention from over a mile away. His was discovered by accident, when he accidentally dropped his violin and it shattered on the floor. Observing how the discordant sound of the breaking strings travelled (trill effect), Hudson had the idea to put a pea in the whistle.[6] Prior to this, whistles were much quieter, and were only thought of as musical instruments or toys for children. After observing the problems that local police were having with effectively communicating with rattles,[7][8] he realised that his whistle designs could be used as an effective aid to their work.[9]

1883年、彼は1マイル以上離れた場所から注目を集めることができる激しい音を生み出すことができるピーホイッスルのデザインを試行し始めました。彼が偶然にバイオリンを床に落としたことから、彼の発明は生み出されました。壊れた弦の不協和音がどのように伝わってくるかを観察し(トリル・エフェクト)、ハドソンはホイッスルにえんどう豆を入れる着想を得ます。

それまでは、笛はいまよりずっと音が小さくて子供のおもちゃや楽器としてしか使われていませんでした。ハドソンは地元の警察官がガラガラのおもちゃを使ってコミュニケーションしているのを観察し、彼のホイッスルのデザインは警察官の仕事の役に立てるものであることを認識しました。

Hudson demonstrated his whistle to Scotland Yard and was awarded his first contract in 1884. Both Ratchet rattles and whistles were used to call for back-up in areas where neighborhood beats overlapped, and following their success in London, the whistle was adopted by most police in the United Kingdom.

★訳★

This police whistle monopoly gradually made Hudson the largest whistle manufacturer in the world, supplying police forces and other general services everywhere. His whistle is still used by many forces worldwide. His design, was improved as the ‘Acme Thunderer’, the first ever pea whistle, which remains the most used whistle in the world; for train guards, dog handlers and police officers.From the 1880s and 90s, J. Hudson & Co began facing greater competition, as other whistle manufacturing companies were established, including W. Dowler & Sons, J. Barrall, R. A. Walton, H. A. Ward and A. De Courcy & Co. In 1987, Ron Foxcroft released the Fox 40 pealess whistle, designed to replace the pea whistle and be more reliable.

 

続きます 2016/11/30最終更新

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